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Direct use of mineral fertilizers MAP, DAP, and TSP as heterogeneous catalysts in organic reactions

Imane Bahammou, Ayoub Esaady, Said Boukhris, Rachida Ghailane, Nouzha Habbadi, Amina Hassikou, Abdelaziz Souizi


In this paper, we reported the first use of phosphate fertilizers (MAP, DAP, and TSP) as heterogeneous catalysts for organic reactions.  Their catalytic activities were investigated in the first time in Knoevenagel condensation of various aromatic aldehydes with malononitrile at room temperature.  These minerals phosphate showed high catalytic activities and ability to be recovering and reusing without a significant loss in their catalytic activities.  In order to reach the optimal reaction conditions for Knoevenagel condensation, we carried out a kinetic study of the effect of reaction time, the effect of solvent, the amount of catalysts and the variation of the range of the particles size the more active.  The best conditions were obtained by the use of these fertilizers (MAP, DAP, and TSP) in their commercial status, simply crashed in powder, without any purification, using ethanol as solvent.  These phosphate fertilizers prove to be very promising and effective heterogeneous catalysts for the condensation of Knoevenagel.

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