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Analysis of macro and micro elemental composition of different extracts and finished products of the medicinal Herb – Terminalia bellirica

Conjeevaram J. Gunasekar, Imad A. Abu-Yousef, Srinivasan Narasimhan, Amin F. Majdalawieh


Terminalina bellirica is considered to be a sacred plant with five distinctive tastes (sweet, sour, salty, bitter, and pungent). It stimulates the proper functioning of the digestive system, sensory organs and it is very effective in treating several medical conditions. Four types of extracts were prepared (aqueous extracts of T. bellirica fruit, alcoholic extract of T. bellirica fruit, alcoholic extract of seed oil from T. bellirica nuts, and alcoholic extract of T. bellirica seed kernel). The elemental composition of T. bellirica was determined by ICP-OES. Macro elements like Ca (calcium), Na (sodium), and K (potassium) were found to be abundant in the studies samples. The quantity of Ca, Na, and K in the aqueous extracts of T. bellirica fruit, finished products of T. bellirica, alcoholic extract of T. bellirica fruit, alcoholic extract of seed oil from T. bellirica nuts, and alcoholic extract of  T. bellirica seed kernel was found to be (723.51-787.39, 347.80-478.90, 50.72, 120, and 300 mg/kg), (603.45-636.79, 241.76-370.00, 9.58, 180, and 200 mg/kg), and (151.23-165.73, 132.70-154.40, 4.26, 200, and 1,150 mg/kg), respectively. An Na/K ratio < 1.0 could prevent high blood pressure. The Na/K ratio in the alcoholic extract of T. bellirica fruit was found to be 0.51. Similarly, a Ca/P ratio > 1.0 is biologically relevant as a Ca/P ratio < 0.5 correlates with several health problems. The Ca/P ratio in the alcoholic extract of T. bellirica fruit was found to be 6.68. Hence, the measured Na/K and Ca/P ratios are in agreement with the recommended ratios. Our study supports the claims that T. bellirica extracts and finished products are of considerable therapeutic value for the prevention and/or treatment of various medical conditions. Moreover, the findings of our study will be helpful to ensure the quality and verify purification of natural products in different ayurvedic formulations.

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