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Antigiaridial Activity and Cytotoxicity of Ethanolic Bark Extract of Acacia nilotica (L.)

Ahmed S. Kabbashi, Aisha Z. Almagboul, Aisha Z. Almagboul, Mohammed I. Garbi, Mohammed I. Garbi, El-badri E. Osman, Waleed S. Koko, Arwa M. Hassan, Mahmoud M. Dahab, Nadir Musa khalil Abuzeid


Background: Acacia nilotica (L.) was used to treat different ailments for instance cold, congestion, fever, gallbladder, hemorrhage, hemorrhoids, leucorrhoea, ophthalmic, sclerosis, small pox, intestinal pains and acute diarrhea. Other preparations are used for gargle, toothache, ophthalmic and syphilitic ulcers. Human parasitic infections still represent a challenging public health problem worldwide, especially in tropical and subtropical regions. Giardiasis is the most common cause of parasitic gastro-intestinal disease and up to two hundred million people are chronically infected with Giardia lamblia globally with 500,000 new cases reported annually.

Objectives: The purpose of the paper is to investigate the in-vitro antigiardial activity and cytotoxicity (MTT assay) of ethanol extract of A. nilotica subsp. nilotica (bark). Method: The ethanolic extract of A. nilotica (bark), with different concentrations (500, 250 and 125 ppm) were investigated together with Metronidazole as a reference control at 312.5 μg/ml against Giardia lamblia trophozoites. Cytotoxicity (MTT assay) was also performed with different concentrations (500, 250 and 125 ppm) and compared to the reference control         Triton-x100.

Result: A. nilotica bark ethanolic extract exhibited 100% mortality within 96 h, at a concentration of 500 ppm; this was compared with Metronidazole which gave 96% inhibition at the concentration of 312.5  μg/ml at the same time. In addition cytotoxicity (MTT-assay) verified the safety of the examined extract with an IC50 less than 100  μg/ml.

Conclusion: These studies prove the potent activity of A. nilotica against Giardia lamblia trophozoites in vitro with verified safety evidence for use.

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